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Networking..

 

v

2001 8- 16.

 

v " " , v, vv , , vv v, vv " v" , v v v 㺺 v .

Computer Network -

v ?

v :

  • ,
  • v , .

v vv , , vv , .

v vv , vv 1950-60- v - vv . 1950- "" . v . "" v . 1960- mainframe v vv . 1970- , , vv , () database ( ) vv, v (client) database- . 1980- v vv 㺺 , v v v v vv . , 1990- v client - server v v .

v , v : v , v v: server ( ), client ( ), circuit (, ). , v v vv v (v) . v . Host-based v v , Client-based v vv , Client-server v , . Client-server v v vv . v, vv v peer-to-peer v . , v peer-to-peer v .

 

v vv

v v, LAN - local area network ( , ), MAN - metroplotian area netwok ( ), WAN - wide area network (, , ) . LAN- , , v . WAN- . v vv.

 

 


v

v OSI- , TCP/IP- v. v v . TCP/IP :

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Application Layer - . v . (web browser)

Network Layer - v . v ,

  • (packet)- , v . (packetizing)
  • v (IP ) vv. (address resolution, DNS)
  • v , , . (routing)

Data Link Layer - . v (packet-) v ,

  • (media access control)
  • , , v . (data link protocols: SLIP, PPP, Ethernet, Token ring, XMODEM, ZMODEM ..)
  • v (: , 㺺 ..) vv . (error detection/correction)

Physical Layer - . , , . (modem), v NIC , , .

 

v :

Application Layer Web browser www.asuult.net
Network Layer TCP/IP () 209.67.50.203
Data Link Layer Ethernet () 00-0C-00-F5-03-5A

v vv . (3) v . v . v TCP/IP , vvv IP . (Data Link) vvv . v v NIC (network interface card) , . v v v v . v v 㺺, v .

 

LAN - local area network

LAN , , 2-3 vv v . LAN v (2- ) , , , , . LAN- vv v (dedicated server)-v, peer-to-peer v .

LAN v v:

  • Network Interface Card (NIC) - v .
  • Network Cables & Hub - v , Hub - .
  • Network Operating System (NOS) - v v , : Novell Netware, WindowsNT, Windows 2000; NOS client software Windows 9x- ...

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v :

  • Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) wires - vvvv , Category 1-5 , Category 1 (1Mbps) , Category 3 (10Mbps) 10Base-T Ethernet-, Category 5 (100Mbps) 100Base-T Ethernet- .
  • Shielded twisted pair (STP) wires - vvv .
  • Coaxial cable - - v vv . RG-58, RG-8 . (10Mbps)
  • Fiber optic cable - , - X3T9.5. (100Mbps) , backbone (WAN) .

 

Ethernet

LAN vvv (70-90%) Ethernet (IEEE IEEE 802.3) . Ethernet bus topology (topology ) - . Ethernet topology, bus :

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Ethernet topology

Hub- LAN- v . Hub- 185-300 v .

Ethernet , Ethernet vv Ethernet . Ethernet , ; Ethernet half-duplex . vv v Ethernet- full-duplex . 10Base-5, 10Base-2 Ethernet-vv .

10Base-T Ethernet- . 10 10Mbps, Base Baseband , T twisted pair wire . v .

vv v vv Ethernet 100Base-T (100Base-X ) (IEEE 802.12) . 100Mbps . v Gigabit Ethernet (IEEE 802.3z) 1000Base-X 㺺, 1Gbps vvv. 100Base-T v . ̺ Ethernet LAN- hub- , switch- , shared multipoint point-to-point , v ; vv Switched Ethernet .

 

 

>>

 

Hundaga Hurelbaatar. Aug 16. 2001.


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